Learning lessons from field surveys in humanitarian contexts: a case study of field surveys conducted in North Kivu, DRC 2006-2008
Survey estimates of mortality and malnutrition are commonly used to guide humanitarian decision-making. Currently, different methods of conducting field surveys are the subject of debate among epidemiologists. Beyond the technical arguments, decision-makers may find it difficult to conceptualize what the estimates actually mean. For instance, what makes this particular situation an emergency? And how should the operational response be adapted accordingly?
Background. Valley fever is a fungal infection occurring in desert regions of the U.S. and Central and South America. Environmental risk mapping for this disease is hampered by challenges with detection, case reporting, and diagnostics as well as challenges common to spatial data handling.
Design and Methods. Using 12,349 individual cases in Arizona from 2006 to 2009, we analyzed risk factors at both the individual and area levels.
Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Longevity and Differential Emergence of Dengue Fever in Two Cities in Sonora, Mexico
Dengue virus, primarily transmitted by the Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito, has rapidly expanded in geographic extent over the past several decades. In some areas, however, dengue fever has not emerged despite established Ae. aegypti populations. The reasons for this are unclear and have sometimes been attributed to socioeconomic differences. In 2013 we compared Ae. aegypti adult density and population age structure between two cities in Sonora, Mexico: Hermosillo, which has regular seasonal dengue virus transmission, and Nogales, which has minimal transmission.
A qualitative study to understand how Ebola Virus Disease affected nutrition in Sierra Leone-A food value-chain framework for improving future response strategies
This study sought understand how the 2014-2016 EVD Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak impacted the nutrition sector in Sierra Leone and use findings for improving nutrition responses during future outbreaks of this magnitude. Methodology This qualitative study was iterative and emergent.
Worldwide, anthropogenic climate change is now a reality and is already affecting the biology and ecology of some organisms, as well as several chemical pathways. Little is known about the consequences of climate change for the food system, particularly seafood, comprising all stages from ''farm to fork" (mainly primary production, processing, transport, and trading). In this context, the current review aims to elucidate climate change impacts on seafood safety and its human health implications.
Study objective: Evidence-based medical literature is lacking about the best methods to train health care providers in disaster response. We systematically review the recent literature to report whether training interventions in disaster preparedness improve knowledge and skills in disaster response.